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CULTURAL HERITAGE

When world-renowned archaeologist Dr. Dragoslav Srejovic started the excavation on the right bank of the Danube, in the Đerdap Gorge in 1965, he couldn’t know that he would come across the centre of one of the most glamorous prehistoric cultures. Ever since, Lepenski Vir, one of the most important archaeological sites in Serbia and Europe, has been in the spotlight of both professionals and tourists willing to meet the distant past at its very source.

Just outside Zajecar, there lies Felix Romuliana, the palace of the last Roman god Gaius Valerius Maximianus Galerius Romuliana came into existence in late 3rd and early 4th century BC. The luxurious palace is adorned with beautiful floor mosaics that can match the best creations of classical Roman period in Europe. Since 2007 Felix Romuliana has been on the UNESCO list of world cultural heritage

Felix Romulijana
Timacum minus

Timacum minus near Knjaževac is the oldest Roman military fortress in eastern Serbia. It dates back to the 1st century AD. The inside of the fortress is filled with various buildings. Lapidarium with Roman stone monuments is in Archeo-ethno-park located in the nearby village of Ravna.

Having tamed the Danube and the mountain rocks, the Roman emperor Trajan built a road through the Đerdap Gorge, up to the place where he built a bridge on the Danube. The construction of the road was finished in 103 AD, and this great endeavour was memorialised on Trajan's board (Tabula Trajana) in the National park ‘Đerdap’. Trajan's board, with a Latin inscription, is visible only from the Danube.

Former military fortress Diana, now an archaeological site on the banks of the Danube between the hydroelectric power plant ''Đerdap 1'' and Kladovo, is associated with the reign of Emperor Trajan.

Šarkamen archaeological site is located 25 kilometres away from Negotin. It came into existence in late antique period, late 3rd and early 4th century. It was the seat of the Roman Emperor Maximinus Daia. Small treasury of imperial gold jewellery from Šarkamen is now kept at the National Museum in Belgrade.

On the Danube, west of Kladovo is the fortress Fetislam. This ''Gate of Peace'', as its name is translated, was built by the Turks in the 16th and 17th centuries and the administration over it was handed over to the Serbian people in 1867.

To defend from the Avars and Slavs, the Roman Emperor Justinian built Sokograd on the upright rock above the river Moravica near Sokobanja. Even after the Roman period passed, Sokograd was a shelter for various armies, and tradition has it that the legendary Haiduk Veljko Petrovic often found refuge here.

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May 24, 2018

Hamam – Turkish bath

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Turkish bath – Hamam from the 15th century is located in the centre of Sokobanja. It was built by the Turks on the foundations of Roman thermal springs as evidenced by the Roman mosaic near the pool in the women’s bath.
The bath has been renovated several times in order that its immense historical value, tourist attractiveness and health and recreational functionality be preserved. The first time it was renovated in 1834 by Prince Miloš Obrenović who often stayed here.

Today, the bath functions as a wellness centre. It has two thermo-mineral springs ‘St. Archangel’ and ‘Transfiguration’, with temperatures between 43ºC and 50ºC.

May 24, 2018

Felix Romuliana

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Did you know that Felix Romuliana was the home of the last Roman god?

A dozen kilometres away from Zaječar, surrounded by the mountains of eastern Serbia, there lies the late classic Imperial palace Felix Romuliana. Felix Romuliana is the home of the last Roman god, Emperor Gaius Valerius Maximianus Galerius, one of the sixteen emperors of the Roman Empire, born on the territory of present-day Serbia. It was built in the 3rd and 4th centuries A.D. and represents one of the shiniest examples of Roman court and memorial architecture.
Due to its unique architectural features and the beauty and quality of preserved works of art, floor mosaics and sculptures, in 2007 Felix Romuliana was placed on the UNESCO list of world cultural heritage. The Emperor named this grandiose architectural complex, surrounded by ramparts made of 20 towers, after his mother Romula.

May 24, 2018

Legacy gallery of Milun Mitrović

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Legacy gallery of Milun Mitrović was opened on the 21st June 2001, at the initiative of painter Milun Mitrović from Sokobanja, who, for that occasion, gave 150 paintings to Sokobanja. Master of Arts Milun Mitrović was born on the 15th December 1922 in the village of Rujevica in Sokobanja region. He graduated from art school in Belgrade in 1948. He was a member of several associations of artists at home and abroad. He had over 40 solo exhibitions at home. He received a number of awards as well as Order of the Republic with Golden Wreath.
During the year, exhibitions of a number of acknowledged national and foreign artists are held in this facility.

 

May 24, 2018

Lepenski Vir

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Have you visited the roots of civilization?

Lepenski Vir is a spectacular archaeological site, uncovered in 1965 on the very bank of the Danube, 15 km away from Donji Milanovac. The culture of Lepenski Vir is around 8000 years old and it represented a total unknown for archaeologists. It was one of the most important discoveries of this kind in Europe. It was named after the location on which it was discovered.

Several key things sets Lepenski Vir apart from other prehistoric cultures. In this place people constantly lived for about 2000 years and during that time they evolved from hunters and fruit pickers to an organized socioeconomic community. Inhabitants of Lepenski Vir were the first urban planners and builders in this region, for they built houses with trapezoidal footing, covered with wooden construction, leaves and skins of wild animals. The houses had a hearth, a small sacrificial altar and stone sculptures which represented their deities. Those very sculptures became a recognizable sign of Lepenski Vir all over the world and they represent the oldest art of that kind in Europe.

May 24, 2018

Haiduk Veljko Museum

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‘I will give my life, but I won’t give Krajina’ was his life motto. What is yours?

Haiduk Veljko Petrović (1780-1813), voivode of Krajina, is famous for his numerous feats in the defence of Negotin Krajina and the borders of eastern Serbia. His life motto ‘I will give my life, but I won’t give Krajina’, his personal courage and heroism quickly made him one of the greatest Serbian heroes that songs were sung about and made him a legend in his lifetime. Serbian Vožd Karađorđe appointed him a voivode and entrusted him with the defence of Negotin, where he died a hero defending Krajina from the Turks. The greatest Serbian composer Mokranjac dedicated his 6th ‘’Garland’ (collection of songs) to him.

The house in which Haiduk Veljko Museum is located was built in the 1860s by obor-knez of Negotin Todorče. Powder chamber is located in the churchyard of the Holy Trinity church in Negotin. It was built of stone and until this day it has completely preserved its authentic appearance. It was an integral part of the fortress ‘Baba Finka’ and today it is its only remaining part since the fortress was torn down in 1883.

May 24, 2018

Krajina Museum

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Do you know what connects Stevan Mokranjac and Haiduk Veljko?

Krajina Museum was established in 1934 on the occasion of the centennial of the liberation of Timok Krajina from the Turks.

Museum fund gradually increased so that today it disposes of around 15,000 items. The Museum consists of: the central building with archaeological, ethnological, historical and artistic exhibits, the birthplace of Stevan Stojanović Mokranjac and Haiduk Veljko Museum. Apart from the mentioned facilities in the town, Krajina Museum performs its activities at the birthplace of Momčilo Ranković in Rajac and archaeological site Vrelo –Šarkamen.

The building which houses the Museum was built at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century. The permanent exhibition follows the historical development of Negotin Krajina from the earliest times until the 20th century and is represented through the exhibits from archaeological, ethnological, historical and artistic collections.
Archaeological collection contains the items from the period 10,000 years BC until the 14th century AD. As such, archaeological fund can be divided into prehistoric, classic and medieval collection of items with a total number of around 7000 items.

Krajina Museum in Negotin has a rich ethnological collection as a testimony to the diversity and wealth of material and spiritual culture of this region: collection of textile materials, collection of ceramic and glass items, collection of metal items, collection of wooden items, collection of jewellery, collection of photographs.

May 24, 2018

The Museum of the Timok Rebellion

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The Timok Rebellion of 1883 in the district of Zaječar was started by the representatives of People’s Radical Party against the government of king Milan Obrenović. It started when people, at the instigation of the head of People’s Radical Party, refused to hand over their weapons. The government’s response to that was the declaration of state of emergency and introduction of court-martial.
The Museum of the Timok Rebellion in Boljevac is situated in the reconstructed building of former old prison house, in which the rebels from the whole Crna Reka region were put. It was opened in 1983 on the centennial of the Timok Rebellion.
This prison was built in 1860 when Prince Miloš Obrenović proclaimed Boljevac the seat of the district.

Exhibit of the Museum follows the time before the Timok Rebellion, the beginning of the rebellion, the battle between people’s and standing armies, organization of the army in the 1880’s, material situation of the population at the end of the 19th century, the most important actors related to the rebellion, all to the court-martial and suppression of the rebellion.

May 24, 2018

Sokograd

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Sokobanja, Sokograd, you come here as an old man, you leave as a youngster.

Sokograd - a medieval town - fortress, is located 2 km southeast of the centre of Sokobanja on a rock above the river Moravica Canyon. It was built in the late 13th and early 14th centuries on the foundations of a Roman fortress dated 4th – 6th centuries. It is mentioned in the texts from the time of Stevan Nemanja as a town named Sokolac, and later on in the biography of the despot Stefan Lazarević. In the period of Serbian medieval state there lived Serbian aristocrats. It was destroyed in 1413 in the battles for Turkish throne, between the son of Bayezid I, sultan Musa Celebi and the renegade Hamuz bey and hasn’t been reconstructed since.

 

May 24, 2018

Prince Miloš’s drinking fountain

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Right next to the archaeological site Trebić there is the drinking fountain of Prince Miloš Obrenović, erected in his honour in 1860. Although renovated several times it has retained its authentic appearance until this day. Thanks to the healing waters of Sokobanja, many people who drank from this fountain felt better. The Prince himself was one of them and for this reason he gave the order for the fountain to be erected at the entrance of the spa.

The original inscription on the fountain has been completely preserved: ‘Miloš Obrenović I, Prince of Serbia erects the fountain for this source in everlasting memory of his arrival at the Spa, in the year 1860’.

May 24, 2018

Medieval fortress Fetislam

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This medieval fortress is located on the very bank of the Danube at the entrance to the town of Kladovo (from western direction). It consists of a Large (Velika) and a Small (Mala) fortress – Kastel.

The large fortress is a fortress with 6 polygonal towers-bastions, connected by ramparts; it has brick-walled walkways, it is surrounded by a water trench and has drawbridges.
During the latest reconstruction they put up inscriptions which exalt Sultan Mahmut II (1818 – 1839) at the time when the fortress got its present shape. Many buildings and facilities for various purposes were discovered inside the fortress.
The smaller fortress of the castle type occupies the highest part of the terrain near the river bank.

Fetislam fortress had had a turbulent history, often changing its masters who destroyed it and reconstructed it again, and who adapted it to their military and strategic needs. Since 1818, during the first half of the 19th century it was a Turkish stronghold.

May 24, 2018

Timacum minus

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Follow in the footsteps of Flavian Fourth Legion and Claudius' Seventh Legion

Timacum minus is the oldest Roman military fortress in Timok Krajina and is located in the valley of the Beli Timok near the village of Ravna. Uncovered epigraphic monuments on the site tell us about the presence of the garrison of Timacum Minus. The inscriptions testify to the presence of soldiers of Flavian Fourth Legion and Claudius' Seventh Legion, Cohort I Thracum Syriaca, Cohort I Montanorum from Raetia or Noricum as well as the presence of a military unit of Cohort II Aurelia Dardanorum.

Collection of monuments from Ravna fortress are exhibited in the lapidarium of the Archeo-ethno park Ravna. In the inside of the fortress two facilities have been explored - horreum and the circular facility in the northeast corner. Northwest of the fortress is a public bath with a preserved system of heating – hypocaust. In the area northeast of the fortress on the bank of the Timok, a Roman bath – thermae was explored. North and south of the fortress the remains of a civilian settlement were uncovered. The existence of buildings dated from the 2nd and 3rd centuries A.D. was established through archaeological explorations.

 

May 24, 2018

Trajan’s bridge

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For 1,000 years, we had the longest bridge ever built in the world!

Five kilometres downstream from Kladovo, on the right bank of the Danube, there are the remains of 1,900 years old pillars of Trajan's Bridge.

Trajan's Bridge was a monumental construction on the Danube in the part where it flows through the Đerdap Gorge. It connected the Upper Moesia and Dacia (modern Serbia and Romania) during the time of Roman Empire. The bridge was built on the orders of Roman Emperor Trajan. The bridge was officially opened on the Danube in the year 105, during Trajan’s second Dacian campaign.

The length of the bridge was 1,097.5 meters and for about 1,000 years it was the longest bridge ever built in the world. It was located near the modern village of Kostol near Kladovo on Serbian side and Drobeta-Turnu Severin on Romanian side. The bridge was designed by the greatest architect of that time, Apollodorus of Damascus. The archaeological remains of Trajan's Bridge and the Roman settlement Pontes are located some 5km away from Kladovo, east of the village of Kostol. The bridge ranks among the most important works of Roman construction.

May 24, 2018

Tabula Traiana

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The construction of the road through Đerdap was finished in 103 AD, and this great endeavour was memorialised with an inscription on a board known as Tabula Traiana (Trajan’s board).
"Tabula Traiana" is an inscription cut into a rock by the Danube, in Đerdap gorge, 2,5 km upstream from Tekija. It was dedicated to Roman Emperor Trajan and is a part of antique monuments on the Roman road which include the remains of the bridge which Trajan built over the Danube.

The construction of a Roman road and a large number of fortifications point to the importance of Đerdap for Roman Empire, until the final conquest of Dacia in the early 2nd century. The construction of the road, which extended right next to the Danube, was conditioned by the needs for a faster and safer river traffic.

Translated from Latin, the inscription on Trajan's plaque reads:
‘Emperor Caesar son of the divine Nerva, Nerva Trajan Augustus, victor over the Germans, Pontifex Maximus, invested for the fourth time as Tribune, Father of the Fatherland, Consul for the third time, excavating mountain rocks and using wood beams has made this road.’

May 24, 2018

Fortress Diana

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Roman castrum (camp) Diana was built on a high rock above the Danube, Karataš, at the village of Sip near Kladovo. Construction of the earliest earth-wooden fortification is related to the arrival of the first military formations at the Danube in the early 1st century and the Emperor Trajan. It was finished at the same time as the digging of the Sip canal (the year 101) which eliminated the biggest obstacle to navigation on the Danube.

It got its final shape at late 3rd and early 4th centuries by adding the ramparts which start at angles and go towards the Danube, closing and protecting part of the bank. In the middle of the 5th century it was destroyed by the Huns; it was reconstructed by Emperor Justinian around the year 530. The fortification was also destroyed during Slav and Avar incursions in the late 6th and early 7th centuries. Outstanding archaeological material (various items from everyday life of the time, sculptures of marble and bronze), show that besides its role for the defence and protection of the canal, during six centuries Diana was also an important economic centre with a harbour and a pier.

May 24, 2018

Vrelo Šarkamen

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Vrelo - Šarkamen is an exclusive monument of Roman culture from the 4th century; it is located on the left bank of the Vrelska River, 6 km west of the village of Šarkamen near Negotin.

Several objects on the left and the right banks of the Vrelska River were discovered, the most important of which were the fortification of the residence and memorial complex with tumulus and imperial mausoleum.
In the mausoleum they found cremated remains of the Empress with a set of golden jewellery and money.

On the basis of the above-mentioned discoveries, the fortification and memorial complex are dated at the early 4th century and are attributed to the Tetrarch Maximinus Daia (305-313) while the mausoleum is attributed to his mother, sister of Emperor Galerius. Also, it was established that the complex at Šarkamen was built following the pattern of Emperor Galerius’s palace Felix Romuliana at Gamzigrad and memorial-sacral complex on Magura, dedicated to the Emperor and his mother Romula.

May 24, 2018

National museum Zaječar

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Following in the footsteps of Romans and Turks to the heroic exploits of our grandfathers.

The National Museum Zaječar was founded in 1951, as a heritage collection. Cultural and historical significance of artefacts rank National Museum in Zaječar among the most important museums in Serbia. Today the Museum has the departments of: archaeology, history, art history and ethnology which have permanent exhibitions in the museum building, Radul-bey's Konak and the Museum of the Timok Rebellion. Since 1996 the Museum has had a department of documents as a separate department. Some exhibits take a prominent place in world cultural heritage (mosaics, sculptures, architectural decorations of the imperial palace Romuliana, etc.).

The national Museum Zaječar includes the following facilities:
- Imperial palace Romuliana – Gamzigrad
- Radul-bey's Konak
- Turkish watermill
- Nikola Pašić Endowment

May 24, 2018

The house of Aca Stanojević

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In one of the most beautiful streets in Knjaževac, in Njegoševa Street at number 6, is the Town Museum of Knjаževac - the house of Aca Stanojević. Bequeathed to the town, it was once the home of Aca Stanojević, Radical Party leader, close associate of Nikola Pašić, Speaker of the National Assembly of Serbia.

The house is a cultural monument. It was built in 1910 according to the architectural plans of building contractor Jovan Fogler from Vienna, in the style of Italian villas of Art Nouveau. Attractive wooden porch leads to the rooms in which you feel as if the time stopped at the end of the 19th century. Spacious lounge, study, clocks, vases, porcelain, all this resonates with warm poise.

Aca Stanojević’s personal items as well as many exhibits received from old families remind that Knjaževac is one of the oldest towns in Serbia.

May 24, 2018

Radul-bey’s Konak

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Radul-bey’s Konak (lodging) is located in the centre of the city of Zaječar, in Ljuba Nešić Street. It represents one of the monuments of Oriental architecture in this area. It was built in the late 18th century and belonged to an unknown Turkish bey. After the liberation of Timok Krajina in 1833 it was bought up by a merchant Radul Gligorijević after whom the building got its name. It was completely renovated in 1975. There is a permanent exhibition upstairs, and on the ground floor of this building is a gallery which, besides art exhibitions, also houses selling exhibitions of sculptures and handicraft items as well as literary evenings and book promotions. The premises of Radul-bey’s Konak are a popular place for gathering of young people.

May 24, 2018

Vrmdža town

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In the valley of Pakleš, not far from the village of Vrmdža, there are walls of an old town which the local people call ‘Latin’. The town dates from the Roman time and arose in the period until the 6th century, during the reign of Emperor Justinian. It was built for the protection of this part of Byzantine territory from the incursions of Avars and Slavs. It was destroyed in 1416 and that is all that is known about it as far as anthropology and demographics are concerned. According to the legend it was looted by Musa Kesedžija himself.

 

May 24, 2018

Archeo-ethno park Ravna

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Step into the time machine. Drink some coffee from our great-grandmothers' terrace.

Archeo - ethno park in Ravna is located 8 km north of Knjaževac. It is especially popular among lovers of customs and tradition, and the ambience of the park itself goes back two hundred years, into the life of the village from the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century.
The old Serbian Moravian house, built of post and pane, was moved here from Stara planina. In the yard there is a ‘ground-floor house’ with pepper wreaths, hung on uneven walls, and there is also a
cauldron for brandy with a cherry wood pipe nearby.

In the cellar of one of the houses is a wine museum with wine shops while in the old village school inside the complex there exists a research station for students and scientists. In the courtyard there is a lapidarium with Roman monuments which were found at the late antique site Timacum minus. Thus, in Ravna, ethnic motifs and traditions intertwine with a distant history.

 

May 24, 2018

Rajac wine cellars (Rajačke pivnice – pimnice)

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Have you visited the place which doesn’t house people but wine?

Traditional way of growing vineyards, pruning, cultivation and winemaking has been preserved so far in Negotin Krajina. Processing of the grapes and cultivation of wines take place in special rooms – facilities which are called pivnice (wine cellars).

The most famous ones are Rajac, Rogljevo and Smedovac pivnice. Their hosts made an effort to turn some of them into a modern functional space, still retaining a specific ambience. They offered that space to tourists and in those wine cellars one can taste and buy wine.

Rajac wine cellars are located not far from the village of the same name, on a hill near the Timok. They represent a unique architectural complex of wine cellars which was built from the second half of the 18th century to the 1930s. The complex comprises 270 wine cellars around the central square with a fountain. They were built from cut stone and logs, and they are covered with tiles. The cellars are partially dug into the ground so that the temperature can vary very little during the year; on the upper floor there are premises for stay during grape picking and cultivation of wine.

Wine cellars in the village of Rogljevo represent the complex of 150 wine cellars. Most of them were built in the 19th century although some believe that, as in other places, there were some wine cellars here in the 18th century as well.
Just as other wine cellar settlements, these ones were formed from irregular streets with a central plateau with inscription, and a covered well as a cultural and a gathering place.

Wine cellars in the village of Smedovac, unlike the previous complexes, are located at the very entrance to the village on the road between Rogljevo and Rajac.

May 24, 2018

Homeland Museum of Knjaževac

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All that interests you about the history of our little Venetia.

In 1970, at the initiative of teacher Nikola Micić Lаnda, Knjаževаc got its History – Museum collection, founded at the Main library and since 1971 the town has taken custody of antiquities and items from local sites. The Museum collection was at the premises of the main library until 1975 when, after systematic archaeological researches on Roman – Byzantium site Timacum Minus in the village of Rаvnа, a permanent museum exhibition was opened in the building at 15, Kаrаđorđeva Street.

As an independent cultural institution it started work in 1980 under the name of Homeland Museum Knjаževаc.

During several decades of dedicated work, Homeland Museum Knjаževаc has become a complex unit which includes departments for archaeology, ethnology, cultural history and art history, conservation, photo documentation as well as a guide service.

The Homeland Museum includes the following facilities:
- the Town Museum in the house of Aca Stаnojević,
- the Archaeo-Ethno Park with a Lapidarium in Ravna,
- Timacum Minus

A special treasure of the museum in Knjаževаc is the ethnological collection of two-string knitted socks. The major part of the collection are 675 ethnographic items from the end of 19th and the beginning of 20th century and an album, unique in the world, with 240 socks drawn in their natural colour and size.

February 06, 2019

Churches and Monastiries

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The tour of the sacral facilities of the Timok Diocese begins on the bank of Trgoviški Timok, in Donja Kamenica, with the Church of the Holy Virgin. It was built in the early 14th century and represents a combination of Romanticism, Gothic and Moravian architecture. Just a few kilometres away there is the Holy Trinity monastery, which was erected in the 14th century. In the lower course of the Timok, in the quiet of centuries-old forests, there is the female monastery of Suvodol, and little lower near the village of Grlište is the Monastery of St. Peter and Paul.

On mount Ozren is Jermenčić Monastery which was built by Armenian monks in 1392. In the vicinity of Boljevac are the monasteries of Lapušnja and Krepičevac and a church Lozica which is supposed to have been a monastery once. Near the church is a very strong source of cold drinking water.

The Church of the Holy Trinity in Negotin, with its monumentality, gives a special feature to the old town core. In the vicinity of the town is Bukovo monastery, erected during the reign of King Milutin in the late 13th century, as well as the monasteries Koroglaš and Vratna. Not far from Vratna Monastery are the Vratna Gates, a unique natural phenomenon made up of huge stone gates - prerasts that connect the canyon.

Manastirica lies on a small stream Šajna, 20 km away from Kladovo; according to a legend Prince Lazar’s daughter found refuge there fleeing the East. It was destroyed and reconstructed several times.

Church of Holy Mother's Ascension and Church of the Holy Spirit Descent are the most important religious buildings in Bor. The church in Majdanpek is dedicated to Holy Apostles Peter and Paul whom miners from Majdanpek took as their patrons; Church of St. Nicolas in Donji Milanovac moved house three times together with the town.

July 17, 2019

Muzej Majdanpek

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by Anita

Zavirite u najstariji očuvani rudnik na planeti zemlji.

U Majdanpeku se nalaze dva, za kulturnu istoriju rane Evrope, najznačajnija lokaliteta: Lepenski vir (između 6500 i 5500 godina p.n.e) - prva ljudska naseobina na otvorenom prostoru posle života pračoveka po pećinama, i Rudna glava - prvi rudnik na tlu Evrope kojim se na izvanredan način dokumentuje prelazak čoveka iz kamenog u doba metala.

Pre početka izgradnje hidrocentrale na Đerdapu, 1965. godine, kod Donjeg Milanovca pronađene su figure ribolikog čoveka, čuvenog "lepenca" (danibijusa), koje potiču s kraja ledenog doba. Ove figure predstavljaju najstarije primerke sakralne arhitekture skulptura...

Sve to, i još mnogo toga, možete saznati u okviru izložbenih postavki muzeja u Majdanpeku.

Muzej u Majdanpeku je osnovan 1998. godine. Ima arheološku, etnološku, istorijsku, umetničku, tehničku, i minerološku kolekciju dokumentarnog materijala.

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